First Aid Training
First aid is the first and immediate assistance given to any person suffering from either a minor or serious illness or injury, with care provided to preserve life, prevent the condition from worsening, or to promote recovery. First aid is generally performed by someone with basic medical training. First aid is medical attention that is typically administered immediately after an injury or illness occurs. It usually consists of one-time, short-term treatment, such as cleaning minor cuts, treating minor burns, applying bandages, and using non-prescription medicine.
Principles of First Aid
Here are the following principles that need to follow while giving First Aid:
- Preserve Life
- Prevent Deterioration
- Promote Recovery
- Taking immediate action
- Calming down the situation
- Calling for medical assistance
- Apply the relevant treatment
NISHE provides free online first aid, CPR and AED training with no hidden fees. Our free online first aid training could equip you with the skills and knowledge to help save someone’s life. Simply work your way through our free online first aid training to develop your lifesaving knowledge.
What is CPR?
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a lifesaving technique useful in many emergencies, including a heart attack or near drowning, in which someone’s breathing or heartbeat has stopped.
If the heart stops pumping, it is known as a cardiac arrest. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a combination of techniques, including chest compressions, designed to pump the heart to get blood circulating and deliver oxygen to the brain until definitive treatment can stimulate the heart to start working again.
There are few steps to follow while giving CPR:
- Position your hand (above). Make sure the patient is lying on his back on a firm surface.
- Interlock fingers (above).
- Give chest compressions (above).
- Open the airway (above).
- Give rescue breaths (above).
- Watch chest fall.
- Repeat chest compressions and rescue breaths.
Performing CPR on a Child
Compress the breastbone. Push down 4cm (for a baby or infant) or 5cm (a child), which is approximately one-third of the chest diameter. Release the pressure, then rapidly repeat at a rate of about 100-120 compressions a minute. After 30 compressions, tilt the head, lift the chin, and give 2 effective breaths.
Performing CPR on a Female
- Push on the chest. Imagine a line between the nipples and put your hands on the center of the chest right below that line. …
- Give rescue breaths. If you have had CPR training and feel comfortable performing the steps, push on the chest 30 times then give 2 rescue breaths.
BASIC FIRST AID TECHNIQUES
In this chapter you will learn about:
Aims of first aid.
First aid and the law.
Dealing with an emergency.
Resuscitation (basic CPR).
Recovery position. Initial top to toe assessment.
Hygiene and hand washing.
First aid overview flow chart. 15
TITLE OF CHAPTER A.1 AIMS OF FIRST AID First aid is the first assistance or treatment given to a casualty or a sick person for any injury or sudden illness before the arrival of an ambulance, the arrival of a qualified paramedical or medical person or before arriving at a facility that can provide professional medical care. As a consequence of disaster or civil strife people suffer injuries which requires urgent care and transportation to the nearest healthcare facility. A.1.1 AIMS OF FIRST AID The aims of first aid are: to preserve life, to prevent the worsening of one’s medical condition, to promote recovery, and to help to ensure safe transportation to the nearest healthcare facility. A.1.2 THE FIRST AIDER A first aider is the term describing any person who has received a certificate from an authorised training body indicating that he or she is qualified to render first aid. First aid certifications issued by St. John Ambulance Association and the Indian Red Cross Society are awarded to candidates who have attended a course of theoretical and practical work and who have passed a professionally supervised examination.
16 TITLE OF CHAPTER A.2 FIRST AID AND THE LAW A.2.1 INDIAN GOOD SAMARITAN PROTECTION GUIDELINES A Good Samaritan in legal terms refers to “someone who renders aid in an emergency to an injured person on a voluntary basis”. The Ministry of Road Transport and Highways has published the Indian Good Samaritan and Bystanders Protection Guidelines in The Gazette of India in May 2015 (Notification No 25035/101/2014-RS dated 12 May 2015). The guidelines are to be followed by hospitals, police and other authorities for the protection of Good Samaritans. Following guidelines are included (sub-selection of the guidelines): 1. A bystander or Good Samaritan, including an eyewitness of a road accident may take an injured to the nearest hospital and should be allowed to leave immediately. The eyewitness has to provide his address. No questions are to be asked. 2. The bystander or Good Samaritan shall not be liable for any civil and criminal liability. 3. A bystander or Good Samaritan who makes a phone call to inform the police or emergency services for the person lying injured on the road cannot be compelled to give his name or personal details on the phone or in person. The disclosure of contact details of the Good Samaritan is to be voluntary. 4. The lack of response by a (medical) doctor in an emergency pertaining to road accidents (where he is expected to provide care) shall constitute ‘Professional Misconduct’. A.2.2 DUTY OF GIVING CARE Usually, if a volunteer comes to the aid of an injured or sick person who is a stranger, the person giving the aid owes the stranger a duty of being reasonably careful. In relation to the “duty of giving care”, there is currently (2015) no legal obligation for first aiders to provide first aid in a general public context, not unless it’s part of a job description. First aid officers in workplaces and school teachers have a duty of care. Once a first aider begins to provide first aid, a duty of care is established and the first aider then has an obligation to fulfil the duty of care. If a road user is involved in an accident, there is a legal requirement to stay at the scene, assist the injured and report the incident to the police. Not fulfilling a duty of giving care leaves the first aider open to questions of negligence. Whilst there is no law that forces anyone to treat a casualty this does not mean that one can simply leave a casualty who you know is in danger. To do so may make you liable through your omission to act. If you are not happy to provide first aid there are several things you can and should do including (but not limited to): inform someone else, such as the police or the emergency services; make the area around the casualty safe for yourself, others and the casualty; monitor the casualty and/or find out what happened; and comfort the casualty. 17 TITLE OF CHAPTER A.2.3 CONSENT OF THE PERSON IN NEED A conscious person has the right to either refuse or accept care. If the person is conscious, you must ask for his consent before commencing any first aid. If he refuses your help, stay nearby and call the police and emergency services, who can then deal with the situation. If the person is under 18, it is best to obtain consent from his parent or guardian if they are present. If they refuse your help, stay nearby and call the police and the emergency services, who can then deal with the situation. If the person is unconscious or unable to formally consent, his consent is inferred and you can then give the necessary first aid. A.2.4 PRIVACY In any first aid situation, the first aider must take steps to assist the person to maintain personal privacy. This means things like, keeping crowds away, putting up a screen if necessary, and covering any exposed body parts with blankets, or sheets, if available. The first aider also needs to take steps to maintain confidentiality. This means not talking about the incident to other people, or answering questions from the media, unless you have permission from the person involved in the accident. A.2.5 NEGLIGENCE If a volunteer comes to the aid of an injured or sick person who is a stranger, the person giving the aid owes the stranger a duty of being reasonably careful. Not fulfilling, or breaking a duty of care leaves the first aider open to questions of negligence. It is unlikely that a first aider would be sued as long as not practiced outside the parameters of the techniques taught at the first aid training. 18 TITLE OF CHAPTER A.3 DEALING WITH AN EMERGENCY Emergency situations vary greatly but there are four main steps that always apply: 1. Make the area safe. 2. Evaluate the injured person’s condition. 3. Seek help. 4. Give first aid. A.3.1 STEP 1: MAKE THE AREA SAFE Your own safety should always come first. As a first aider, you should: try to find out what has just happened; check for any danger: is there a threat from traffic, fire, electricity cables, etc.; never approach the scene of an accident if you are putting yourself in danger; do your best to protect both the injured person(s) and other people on the scene; be aware that the property of the injured person is at risk. Theft can occur. So mind your safety, and seek police or emergency help if an accident scene is unsafe and you cannot offer help without putting yourself in danger. An important part of safety also includes washing your hands and wearing gloves or a protection when coming in contact with the injured or sick person’s blood or body fluids. In case of road accidents, as a first aider, you should: always follow the traffic rules; ask other people to warn traffic about the event; if possible, place a warning sign at a good distance, at least 30 meters to either side of the accident, to warn traffic. Do not forget to remove the warning signs afterwards; seek help from the police or emergency services; not allow anybody to smoke near an accident site; switch off the engine of every car involved in the accident; and 19 TITLE OF CHAPTER try to apply the handbrake of vehicles involved in the accident to prevent them from moving. You can also put something against the tyres to prevent rolling. As a general rule, the injured person should not be moved from the scene of an accident. Any movement may make the injury worse if there has been a head, neck, back, and leg or arm injury. Only move injured people if: the injured person is in more danger if he is left there, the situation cannot be made safe, medical help will not arrive soon, and you can do so without putting yourself in danger. A.3.2 STEP 2: EVALUATE THE CONDITION OF THE SICK OR INJURED PERSON If it is safe, you can evaluate the sick or injured person’s condition. Always check that he is conscious and breathing normally. Situations in which consciousness or breathing are impaired are often life threatening. Bleeding can also happen inside the body and can be life-threatening although the loss of blood is not seen. Techniques of resuscitation (CPR), the recovery position, etc. are explained in this manual. A.3.3 STEP 3:SEEK HELP Once you have evaluated the sick or injured person’s condition you can decide if help is needed urgently. If help is needed, ask a bystander to call for help. Ask him to come back and confirm that help is underway. If you call for help, be prepared to have the following information available: 20 TITLE OF CHAPTER the location where the help is required (address, street, specific reference points, location; if in a building: floor, room); the telephone or mobile number you are calling from; the nature of the problem; what happened (car accident, fall, sudden illness, explosion, …); how many injured; nature of the injuries (if you know); what type of help is needed: ambulance, police, fire brigade, or other services; and any other information that might help. You might be asked to give your name. Always stay calm and answer their questions calmly. The call takers are professionals and will give you further guidance. If an ambulance can be obtained in a short time, it is best to call for one and use it to transport the injured or sick person to the healthcare facility. An ambulance is the best way to transport ill or injured persons, but they are not always and everywhere quickly available. You can always ask the police for help. If no help is available, you will have to arrange transport yourself (in a van, a truck, a car, an auto-rickshaw, a motorbike, a scooter, a bike-rickshaw, a bike…). Always move the sick or injured person with great care. A.3.4 STEP 4: PROVIDE FIRST AID Give first aid in accordance with the instructions given in the following chapters in this manual. When providing first aid, try to protect an ill or injured person from cold and heat. Do not give anything to eat or drink to a person who is: severely injured, feeling nausea, becoming sleepy, or falling unconscious. In fact, as a general principle, the rule is not to give a casualty anything to drink or eat. Important exceptions include hypothermia (low body temperature), hypoglycaemic shock (low blood sugar in a diabetes patient), diarrhoea and fever leading to dehydration and in case of heat exhaustion or heatstroke. The details can be reviewed in the specific chapters on these conditions. Be aware that experiencing an emergency situation is a very stressful experience for the injured or sick person. 21 TITLE OF CHAPTER To support him through the ordeal, follow these simple tips: tell the sick or injured person your name, explain how you are going to help him and reassure him. This will help to relax him; listen to the person and show concern and kindness; make him as comfortable as possible; if he is worried, tell him that it is normal to be afraid; if it is safe to do so, encourage family and loved ones to stay with him; and explain to the sick or injured person what has happened and what is going to happen. A.3.5 WHEN CAN I STOP PROVIDING FIRST AID? The question arises when your first aid ‘duty’ comes to an end? Within first aid, CPR is a lifesaving activity. But when you can stop giving CPR? There are four reasons allowing you to stop CPR: you see a sign of life, such as breathing; someone trained in first aid or a medical professional takes over; you are too exhausted to continue; or the scene becomes unsafe for you to continue. 22 TITLE OF CHAPTER A.4 STRESS WHEN GIVING FIRST AID It is only normal to feel stress if you are suddenly faced with the need to give first aid in a real emergency. Try to bring your emotions under control before you proceed. You may take some time to stand back from the situation and regain your calm. Do not set about the task too hastily and do not under any circumstances place your own safety at risk. It is not always easy to process a traumatic event emotionally. It is not unusual for first aiders to experience difficulty when working through their emotions afterwards. Talk to your friends, family, fellow first aiders or someone else. If you are still worried, talk to a professional and seek counselling